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        首页 培训资料13之虚拟语气

        培训资料13之虚拟语气.doc

        培训资料13之虚拟语气

        朱猪毛毛虫
        2019-02-27 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

        简介:本文档为《培训资料13之虚拟语气doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

        高中英语虚拟语气讲解英语中有三种不同的语气:陈述语气祈使语气和虚拟语气。虚拟语气表示动作或状态与事实相反或不可能发生的情况。一.虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中表示与现在事实相反或不可能发生:条件状语从句:一般过去时(虚拟语气中be→were)主句用:would(should,could,might)动?#35797;?#24418;。Ifwehadtimenow,wewouldreaditagainIfIwereyou,Iwouldworkhard、(天津卷)IsoonerbutIdidn’tknowthattheywerewaitingformeAhadcome????Bwascoming???Cwouldcome???Dwouldhavecome表示与过去事实相反或不可能发生:条件状语从句:had过去分词主句:would(should,could,might)have过去分词。Ifhehadtakenmyadvice,hewouldhavesucceededinthetestIfIhadknownyourtelephonenumberthen,Iwouldhavecalledyou(年上海卷)Ifyouhadyourtestpapercarefullybeforehandingitin,youwouldhavemadefewermistakesAlookedupBthoughtaboutCgoneoverDgoneround????(上海秋)ItishardformetoimaginewhatIwouldbedoingtodayifIinlove,attheageofseven,withtheMelindaCoxLibraryinmyhometownAwouldn’thaveBhadnotfallenCshouldfallDweretofall????(陕西)Ifwetheotherroad,wemighthavearrivedhereintimeforthemeetingAtake?Bhadtaken?Ctook??Dhavetaken(浙江).HadIknownaboutthiscomputerprogram,ahugeamountoftimeandenergy???A.wouldhavebeensaved??B.hadbeensaved?C.willbesaved?D.wassaved、(?#26412;?#21367;)MaybeifIscience,andnotliteraturethen,Iwouldbeabletogiveyoumorehelp??Astudied??????Bwouldstudy??Chadstudied????Dwasstudying、(江苏卷)Ileftmyhandbagonthetrain,butluckilysomeonegaveittotherailwayofficialsHowunbelievabletogetitback!Imean,someoneitAwillhavestolen?Bmighthavestolen?Cshouldhavestolen?Dmusthavestolen(年全国卷I)Youdidn'tletmedriveIfwe?inturn,you?sotiredAdrove,didn'tgetdrovewouldn'tgetCweredrivingwouldn'tgetDhaddrivenwouldn'thavegot??Hadyoulistenedtothedoctor,youallrightnowAare?Bwere?Cwouldbe?DwouldhavebeenIfhehislegsinthelasttraining,hethecomingWorldCup,whichhehasbeenlongingtocompeteinAhadn’thurtwouldjoinin??Bhadn’thurtwouldhavetakenpartinCdidn’thurtwouldgoinfor??Ddidn’thurtwouldhavetakenpartin表示与将来的事实可能相反或不可能发生:条件状语从句:①一般过去时②should动?#35797;?#24418;③wereto动?#35797;?#24418;主句:would(should,could,might)动?#35797;?#24418;。Ifitshouldrain,thecropswouldbesavedIfitweretosnowtomorrow,theywouldnotgooutitraintomorrow,wewouldhavetoputoffthevisittotheYangpuBridgeAWere?BShould?CWouldDWilltoday,hewouldgettherebyFridayAWerehetoleave?BIfhehadleft?CDidhetoleave??DHadheleftIfittomorrow,whatshallwedoArains?Bwouldrain?Crained?DshouldrainPS虚拟条件句的特殊情况()混合错综型虚拟语气当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时称为‘错综条件句’动词的?#38382;?#35201;根据它所表示的时间作出相应的调整。Ifyouhadfollowedmyadvice,youwouldbebetternow(从句说的是过去主句是现在)IfIwereyou,Iwouldhavetakenhisadvice(从句是现在主句是过去)hard,hewouldhavepassedtheexamAIfheweretowork?BHadheworkedCShouldhework?DWerehetoworkHebusyyesterday,orheyouwithyourexperimentAwas,hadhelped????Bwas,wouldhavehelpe?Chadbeen,wouldhavehelped???Dwere,wouldhavehelpedHadyoudoneasItoldyou,youAwouldsucceedBwouldhavesucceededCweretosucceed?Dshouldsucceed()省略if的虚拟语气如果从句中含有wereshouldhad时则可以把这三个词置于句?#36164;?#30053;if采用倒装语序。Ifitshouldhappen,whatwouldyoudo→Shouldithappen,whatwouldyoudoIfhehadrecognizedme,hewouldhavecomeover→Hadherecognizedme,hewouldhavecomeover()含蓄虚拟条件句有时候假设的情况不以if引导的条件从句?#38382;?#34920;现出来而是通过一个介词短语连词或其他?#38382;?#34920;示。常用的词或短语有:without,with,butfor(要是没有),otherwise,or,but?#21462;ithoutyourhelp(=Ifwehadnothadyourhelp),wecouldnothavesucceededButforelectricity(=Iftherewerenoelectricity,therewouldbenomodernindustryHefeltverytiredyesterday,orotherwisehewouldhaveattendedtheparty、(江西卷)WeJohn’snameontheracelistyesterdaybutforhisrecentinjuryAwillput??????Bwillhaveput????Cwouldput??????DwouldhaveputButforwater,itimpossibletoliveintheearthAis?Bwould?Cwere?Dwouldn’tbeThekindheartedcoupletreattheorphanverywellasthoughhetheirownsonAisBwereChadbeenDshouldbeyourhelp,ItheexamAWithout,willfail?BIfnot,willfailCButfor,wouldhavefailedDIfitisnotfor,wouldhavefailedHehesitatedforamomentbeforekickingtheball,otherwiseheagoal(上海)Ahadscored????????????????Bscored??Cwouldscore????????????Dwouldhavescored)在ifitwere(hadbeen)notfor…句型中的虚拟语气虚拟语气也常用于‘ifitwere(hadbeen)notfor…’句型中意为‘要不是由于…’。Ifitwerenotforpeace,wecouldnotbelivingahappylifetodayIfithadnotbeenforyourtimelyhelp,Iwouldhavegonebankrupt二.虚拟语气用在名?#24066;源?#21477;中主语从句中的虚拟语气这种虚拟语气主要用在itis形容词(名?#20351;?#21435;分词)that主语should动?#35797;?#24418;(should可以省略)这种结构中。①??常见的这类形容词有:advisable,anxious,better,desirable,surprising,natural,necessary,strange,important,regretful②??常见的这类过去分词有:decided,demanded,recommended,requested,desired,required,ordered,suggested③??常见的这类名词有:duty,pity,nosurprise,nowonder,regret,shameItwassuggestedthathe(should)jointheclubactivitiesItisstrange(surprising,disappointing)thatshe(should)nothavebeeninvitedItisapitythathe(should)refusetoaccepttheoffer(上海秋)besenttoworkthereAWhodoyousuggestBWhodoyousuggestthatshouldCDoyousuggestwhoshouldDDoyousuggestwhomshould??ItwasrequestedthattheplayagainAshouldputon?Bwouldputon??Cbeputon???DputonSheinsistedthatadoctorimmediatelyAhadsentfor?Bsend??Cbesentfor??DwassentItisstrangethathebacksoearlyAcame???Bwillcome?Chadcome?DshouldhavecomeHerpalefacesuggestedthatsheill,andherparentssuggestedthatsheamedicalexaminationAbe,shouldhave?Bwas,haveCshould,had???Dwas,hasItisimportantthatyou???sportseveryday Ahave Bwouldhave?Cmusthave?Dwillhave宾语从句中的虚拟语气①wish后面所跟宾语从句谓语动词用虚拟语气(意为要是但愿…就好了)其?#38382;?#20027;要有三种:表示对现在情况的虚拟:wish后接一般过去时的从句表示对过去情况的虚拟:wish后接过去完成时shouldcouldhavedone表示对将来情况的虚拟:wish后接wouldcould动?#35797;?#24418;IwishitwerespringallyearroundIwishitwouldbefinetomorrowShewishedshehadstayedathome(上海春招)HowIwisheveryfamilyalargehousewithabeautifulgardenAhasBhadCwillhaveDhadhad????HowIwisheveryfamilyalargehousewithabeautifulgardenAhas?Bhad?Cwillhave?DhadhadHowtheoldpeoplewishthattheyyoungoncemoreAwere???BcouldbecomeChadbeen?DshouldbeIwishthatyousuchabadheadachebecauseIamsurethatyouwouldhaveenjoyedtheconcertAhadnot??BdidnothavehadChadn’thad?Dhadn’thaveHowIwishItorepairthewatch!IonlymadeitworseAhadtried?Bhadn’ttried?Chavetried?Ddidn’ttryIthasbeenproposedthattheschoolsportsmeettillnextweekendbecauseoftherecentstormAshouldbeputoff???????Bshouldputoff?Cputoff??????????DwouldbeputoffHowIwishItoAthens,wherethethOlympicGamesarebeingheld!Awillpayavisit???????????Bhavepaidavisit?Ccouldpayavisit????????Dhadpaidavisit②在表示建议命令要求等动词后的从句要用(should)动?#35797;?#24418;。此类动词有:suggest,advise,propose,demand,require,insist(要求),order,prefer,command,ask,requestTheteacherorderedthatallthebooks(should)behandedinontimePS当suggest表示‘暗示说明’之意insist表示‘坚持认为坚持说’之意时从句不用虚拟用正常的陈述语气。ThemaninsistedthathehadneverstolenthemoneyThesmileonhisfacesuggestedthathewassatisfiedwithlifeThechairmaninsistedthatwethequestionagainAwilldiscuss??Btodiscuss?CshoulddiscussDwillbediscussedHerequestedthatthestudentsthemgetincropsAhelp?BtohelpChelped?Dhelping,TheguardatthegateinsistedthateverybodytherulesAobeys?Bobey?CwillobeyDwouldobeyMothersuggestedthatImyhomeworkfirstbeforewatchingTVAdidBdo?Cshalldo?DhavedoneTheteacherdemandedthattheexambeforeelevenAmustfinish?BwouldbefinishedCbefinished?DmustbefinishedTheCEOofthecompanyinsistedinthefivestarhotelAthatwenotstay??Bthatwedon’tstay??Cwewouldn’tstay?Dnottostay表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟语气在表示建议命令要求的名词后的表语从句或同位语从句中的谓语动词要用(should)动?#35797;?#24418;。常见名词有:advice,desire,request,demand,proposal,suggestion,preference,requirement,orderHegaveordersthattheguests(should)behospitalentertainedHisproposalisthatwe(should)getridofthebadhabitsMysuggestionisthatthemeetingofftillnestSundayAbeput?Bput?Cshouldput?DhadbeenputWhatdoyouthinkhisproposalthatweaplayattheEnglishmeetingAhadputon?Bshouldputon?Chaveputon?Dwillputon三.虚拟语气在其他情况中的使用在asifasthough引导的状语从句中若从句与事实相反则要用虚拟语气。其?#38382;?#22914;下:主语asifthough主语一般过去时(从句的动作与主句同时发生)主语asifthough主语wouldcould动?#35797;?#24418;(从句的动作相对主句?#27492;?#22312;将来发生)

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